|PRESERVING--BREEDING-GENETICS-HISTORY-STANDARD/MORPHOLOGY-NORTH AFRICAN EFFORTS ARTS/CULTURE|
Gray Wolf © U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Hollingsworth ~ Golden Jackal © Tbjornstat
Three Gene Mutations involved
of Canine Coat Type
In an article entitled "Coat variation in the Domestic Dog is Governed by Variants in Three Genes" by Cadieu et al (2009), the authors analyse for the first time the genes and their mutations underlying the inheritance of different coat lengths and curls in dog breeds.
622 dogs representing all coat phenotypes and 108 of some 160 AKC recognized breeds*were sampled.
The authors find mutations in three distinct genes: RSPO2 (encoding R-spondin-2), FGF5 (fibroblast growth factor-5) and KRT71(keratin-71). These mutations together influence 95% of coat types found in pure-bred dogs in the United States of America.
Ancestral state of these three genes:
haired dog breeds
all have the ancestral state of these three genes found in Golden
Gray Wolf and Wolf.
Italian Greyhound © Schwab ~ Whippet © Gail Wieberdink
Greyhound © Karen Lorenzo ~
Ancestral state of the three genes
moustache and eyebrows show a mutation in the RSPO2 gene.
examples: Irish Wolfhound, Scottish Deerhound
most of the highly variable canine coat types can be explained by the
effects of as few as 3 gene mutations.
I thank Heidi G.
fine tuning this text and all the photographers for their pictures.
Edouard Cadieu, Mark Neff, Pascale Quignon, Kari Walsh, Kevin Chase, Heidi G. Parker, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Alison Rhue, Adam Boyko, Alexandra Byers, Aaron Wong, Dana S. Mosher, Abdel G. Elkahloun, Tyrone C. Spady, Catherine André, K. Gordon Lark, Michelle Cargill, Carlos D.Bustamante, Robert K.Wayne, Elaine A. Ostrander (2009):"Coat Variation in the Domestic Dog Is Governed by Variants in Three Genes" in www.sciencexpress.org / 27 August 2009 / Page 1 / 10.1126/science.1177808
* The always short-haired African Sighthound breeds, Sloughi and Azawakh, are not yet recognized by the American Kennel Club, hence not part of this study. However, they are probably like all other short coated breeds in the study and have the ancestral state of all three genes studied here.